Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research
Abbreviation: EPASR | ISSN (Print): 1949-4270 | ISSN (Online): 1949-4289 | DOI: 10.29329/epasr

Original article | Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2018, Vol. 13(1) 127-148

Not my responsibility: The Impact of separate special education systems on educators' attitudes toward inclusion

Jess Gregory

pp. 127 - 148   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/epasr.2018.137.8

Published online: April 16, 2018  |   Number of Views: 353  |  Number of Download: 718


Abstract

Framed in terms of global policy pressures, this study explored differences in educator attitudes towards the inclusion of children with mild to moderate disabilities in the general education setting in Australia, Barbados, Romania, Turkey, and the United States.  The purpose of this study was to investigate how educator attitudes towards the inclusion vary between nations that have disparate forms of special education systems.  A sample of 1679 educators was analysed using the Attitudes Towards Teaching All Students (ATTAS-mm) and a triadic model of attitudes. Significant differences were found between nations.  In addition to a statistically significant difference in the overall attitude scale, the three subscales: cognitive, affective and behavioural also demonstrated statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes.  These results support the differentiation of professional development for educators dependent on the setting and admonish against policy makers exporting educational policies as best practices regardless of context.

Keywords: inclusive education; special education; education policy; national capital; international comparative education; educator attitudes; educational leadership


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Gregory, J. (2018). Not my responsibility: The Impact of separate special education systems on educators' attitudes toward inclusion. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 13(1), 127-148. doi: 10.29329/epasr.2018.137.8

Harvard
Gregory, J. (2018). Not my responsibility: The Impact of separate special education systems on educators' attitudes toward inclusion. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 13(1), pp. 127-148.

Chicago 16th edition
Gregory, Jess (2018). "Not my responsibility: The Impact of separate special education systems on educators' attitudes toward inclusion". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 13 (1):127-148. doi:10.29329/epasr.2018.137.8.

References
  1. Ainscow, M. & Cesar, M. (2006). Inclusive education ten years after Salamanca: Setting the agenda. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 21(3), 231-238. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ainscow, M., Dyson, A., & Weiner, S. (2013/14). From exclusion to inclusion: A review of international literature on way s of responding to students with special educational needs in schools. En-clave Pedagógica, 13, 13-30. [Google Scholar]
  3. Allan, J. (2012). The inclusion challenge. In T. Barow & D. Östlund (Eds.), Bildning för alla! En pedagogisk utmaning. [Education for everyone! A pedagogical challence.] (pp. 109–120). Kristianstad, Sweden: Högskolan Kristianstad.  [Google Scholar]
  4. Amoako, E. (2012). Globalisation plus Comparative and International Education: Towards a Theory of the Confluence. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 1(1), 62.  [Google Scholar]
  5. Ansell, B. W. (2008). Traders, teachers, and tyrants: Democracy, globalization, and public investment in education. International Organization, 62(2) 289-322. [Google Scholar]
  6. Armstrong, D., Armstrong, A. C., & Spandagou, I. (2011). Inclusion: by choice or by chance? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(1), 29-39. [Google Scholar]
  7. Avramidis, E., Bayliss, P., & Burden, R. (2000). Student teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(3), 277–293. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-051X(99)00062-1 [Google Scholar]
  8. Beacham, N., & Rouse, M. (2012). Student teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about inclusion and inclusive practice. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 12(1), 3–11. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-3802.2010.01194.x [Google Scholar]
  9. Busemeyer, M. R., & Trampusch, C. (2011). Review article: comparative political science and the study of education. British Journal of Political Science, 41(02), 413-443. [Google Scholar]
  10. Cherryholmes, C. H. (1994). More notes on pragmatism. Educational researcher, 16-18. [Google Scholar]
  11. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. [Google Scholar]
  12. Cologon, K. (2013). Inclusion in education: Towards equality for students with disabilities Issues paper. Children and Families Research Centre, Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University. [Google Scholar]
  13. Convention on the Rights of the Child, United Nations, Sept. 2, 1990, 1577 (27531), 3. [Google Scholar]
  14. Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334. [Google Scholar]
  15. Crossley, M. (2000). Bridging cultures and traditions in the reconceptualisation of comparative and international education. Comparative Education, 36(3), 319-332. [Google Scholar]
  16. Crossley, M. (2008). Bridging cultures and traditions for educational and international development: Comparative research, dialogue and difference. International Review of Education, 54(3/4), 319-336. [Google Scholar]
  17. Crossley, M. (2009). Bridging cultures and traditions for educational and international development: Comparative research, dialogue and difference (pp. 33-50). Springer Netherlands. [Google Scholar]
  18. Crouch, R., Keys, C. B., & McMahon, S. D. (2014). Student-teacher relationships matter for school Inclusion: School belonging, disability and school transitions. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 42, 20-30. [Google Scholar]
  19. D’Alessio, S., & Cowan, S. (2013). Cross-cultural approaches to the study of ‘inclusive’ and ‘special needs’ education. In A. W. Wiseman & E. Anderson (Eds.), Annual review of comparative and international education 2013 (Vol. 20, pp. 227-261). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing. [Google Scholar]
  20. Deletant, D. (2008). New Evidence on Romania and the Warsaw Pact, 1955-1989. Cold War International History Project e-Dossier Series. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center. [Google Scholar]
  21. Dunne, M. (2014). Mergers and Acquisitions within the EU: Have Member States Lost Belief in the Single Market. Irish Law Journal, 2. Retrieved from http://heinonlinebackup.com/hol-cgi-bin/get_pdf.cgi?handle=hein.journals/irlajor2013§ion=5 [Google Scholar]
  22. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, L. (1972). Attitudes and opinions. Annual Review of Psychology 23, 487-544. [Google Scholar]
  23. Folostina, R., Duta, N., & Pravalici, A. (2014). The Attitudes of Teacher Towards Integrating Students with Intellectual Disability in Regular Schools in Romania.  Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 141, 506-511. [Google Scholar]
  24. Forlin, C. (2013). Changing paradigms and future directions for implementing inclusive education in developing countries. Asian Journal of Inclusive Education, 1(2), 19-31. [Google Scholar]
  25. Gal, E., Schreur, N., & Engel-Yeger, B. (2010). Inclusion of Children with Disabilities: Teachers’ Attitudes and Requirements for Environmental Accommodations. International Journal of Special Education, 25(2), 89–99. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ890588 [Google Scholar]
  26. Gehrke, R. S., & Cocchiarella, M. (2013). Preservice special and general educators’ knowledge of inclusion. Teacher Education and Special Education, 36(3), 204-216. [Google Scholar]
  27. Ghergut, A. (2010). Analysis of inclusive education in Romania: Results from a survey conducted among teachers. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 711-715. [Google Scholar]
  28. Graham, L. J., & Jahnukainen, M. (2011). Wherefore art thou, inclusion? Analysing the development of inclusive education in New South Wales, Alberta and Finland. Journal of Education Policy, 26(2), 263-288. [Google Scholar]
  29. Gregory, J. L. & Noto, L. A. (2011). Is it possible to impact the attitudes of pre-service general education teachers about the inclusion of students with disabilities. Proceedings of the International Conference on Education. http://www.hiceducation.org/proceedings_edu.htm. [Google Scholar]
  30. Gregory, J. L. & Noto, L. A. (2012). Technical manual for attitudes towards teaching all students (ATTAS-mm) instrument. (ED537530). [Google Scholar]
  31. Hunt, P. F. (2011). Salamanca Statement and IDEA 2004: possibilities of practice for inclusive education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(4), 461-476. [Google Scholar]
  32. Hunter-Johnson, Y. & Newton, N. G. L. (2014). What does teachers’ perception have to do with inclusive education: A Bahamian context. International Journal of Special Education, 29(1), 1-15. [Google Scholar]
  33. Incheon Declaration, Education 2030: Towards inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning for all, United Nations, May 22, 2015, (ED/WEF2015/MD/3). [Google Scholar]
  34. International Monetary Fund | April 2015 [Google Scholar]
  35. Jacobsen, K. (2009). Achievements and non-achievements of the European employment strategy. In N. Morel, B. Palier, J. Palme (dir.), What future for social investment?, Institute for Futures Studies Report Series, 2009, 119-130. [Google Scholar]
  36. Kandel, I. L. (1933). Studies in comparative education. George G. Harrap and Company Limited: London. [Google Scholar]
  37. Kiuppis, F. (2014). Why (not) associate the principle of inclusion with disability? Tracing connections from the start of the ‘Salamanca Process’. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(7), 746-761. [Google Scholar]
  38. Kiuppis, F., & Peters, S. (2014). Inclusive Education for all as a Special Interest within the Comparative and International Education Research Community. Annual Review of Comparative and International Education, 25, 53-63. [Google Scholar]
  39. Kushen, R., Buzetzky, T., Usein, O., & Bojadjieva, A. (2015). The Decade of Roma Inclusion 2005–2015. Retrieved February 8, 2016, from http://www.romadecade.org/ [Google Scholar]
  40. LeBeer, J., Birta-Székely, N., Demeter, K., Bohács, K., Candeias, A. A., Sønnesyn, G., Partanen, P. & Dawson, L. (2011). Re-assessing the current assessment practice of children with special education needs in Europe. School Psychology International, 33(1), 69-92. [Google Scholar]
  41. Lifshitz, H., & Glaubman, R. (2002). Religious and secular students’ sense of self-efficacy and attitudes towards inclusion of pupils with intellectual disability and other types of needs. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46(5), 405–418. http://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2788.2002.00424.x [Google Scholar]
  42. Lingard, B., Rawolle, S., & Taylor, S. (2005). Globalizing policy sociology in education: working with Bourdieu. Journal of education policy, 20(6), 759-777. http://core.kmi.open.ac.uk/download/pdf/10874366.pdf [Google Scholar]
  43. McMillan, J. H., & Foley, J. (2011). Reporting and discussing effect size: Still the road less traveled. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 16(14), 1-12. [Google Scholar]
  44. Melekoglu, M. A., Cakiroglu, O., & Malmgren, K. W. (2009). Special education in Turkey. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 13(3), 287-298. [Google Scholar]
  45. Meral, B. (2014). Obstacles to special education for students with intellectual disabilities in Turkey: A brief report. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 30(1), 93-105. [Google Scholar]
  46. Meral, B. & Turnbull, H. R. (2014). Analysis of special education policy in Turkey and United States: Improving Turkey’s policy for students with intellectual disability.  Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 11(3), 165-175. [Google Scholar]
  47. Mintz, J. (2007).  Attitudes of primary initial teacher training students to special needs and inclusion.  Support for Learning, 22(1), 3-8. [Google Scholar]
  48. Moores, D. E. (2011). Waist deep in the big muddy: The individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA) and no child left behind (NCLB). American Annals of the Deaf, 155(5), 523- 525. [Google Scholar]
  49. Morel, N., Palier, B., & Palme, J. (2009). Introduction. In N. Morel, B. Palier, J. Palme (dir.), What future for social investment?, Institute for Futures Studies Report Series, 2009, 15-22.  [Google Scholar]
  50. Mosley, L. (2003). Global capital and national governments. New York: Cambrdge Univeristy Press. Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=pYykNVRMpKAC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=EU+reduced+%22national+capital%22&ots=hKi3qhnno-&sig=S0srDGSjt8udrMJ0qvw9KsoVzPI [Google Scholar]
  51. Murphy, M. (1997). Capital, class and adult education: the international political economy of lifelong learning in the European Union. In P. Armstrong, N. Miller, & M. Zukas (Eds.), Crossing Borders Breaking Boundaries, Proceedings of the 27th Annual SCUTREA Conference (pp. 362–364). London: Standing Conference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults. Retrieved from http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/000000273.doc [Google Scholar]
  52. Nelson, M., & Stephens, J. D. (2009). Human capital policies and the social investment perspective: Explaining the past and anticipating the future. In N. Morel, B. Palier, J. Palme (dir.), What future for social investment?, Institute for Futures Studies Report Series, 2009, 67-78.  [Google Scholar]
  53. Nikolai, R. (2009). Towards social investment? Patterns of public policy in the OECD world. In N. Morel, B. Palier, J. Palme (dir.), What future for social investment?, Institute for Futures Studies Report Series, 2009, 99-118. [Google Scholar]
  54. Palme, J. (2009). The quest for sustainable social policies in the EU: The crisis and beyond. In N. Morel, B. Palier, J. Palme (dir.), What future for social investment?, Institute for Futures Studies Report Series, 2009, 177-193. [Google Scholar]
  55. Parasuram, K. (2006). Variables that affect teachers’ attitudes towards disability and inclusive education in Mumbai, India. Disability & Society, 21(3), 231–242. http://doi.org/10.1080/09687590600617352 [Google Scholar]
  56. Peters, S. J. (2007). ‘Education for all?’ A historical analysis of international inclusive educa- tion policy and individuals with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 18(2), 98-108. [Google Scholar]
  57. Richardson, B., & Ngwenya, P. R. (2013). Cut Loose in the Caribbean: Neoliberalism and the Demise of the Commonwealth Sugar Trade. Bulletin of Latin American Research, 32(3), 263–278. http://doi.org/10.1111/blar.12001 [Google Scholar]
  58. Romania Ministry of Education and Research. (2001). The Romanian Education System, the national report. Bucharest: Author. [Google Scholar]
  59. Romi, S., & Leyser, Y. (2006). Exploring inclusion preservice training needs: a study of variables associated with attitudes and self‐efficacy beliefs. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 21(1), 85–105. http://doi.org/10.1080/08856250500491880 [Google Scholar]
  60. Silverman, J. C. (2007).  Epistemological beliefs and attitudes towards inclusion in pre-service teachers.  Teacher Education and Special Education, 30(1), 42-51. [Google Scholar]
  61. Subban, P., & Sharma, U. (2006). Primary school teachers’ perceptions of inclusive education in Victoria, Australia. International …, 21(1), 42–52. Retrieved from http://www.internationaljournalofspecialed.com/docs/05 SubbanSharma.doc [Google Scholar]
  62. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2013). Digest of Education Statistics, 2012. (NCES 2014-015), Table 48.  [Google Scholar]
  63. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Education and Inclusion in the United States: A Brief Overview, Washington, D.C., 2008. Retrieved Feb 20, 2015, from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/National_Reports/ICE_2008/usa_NR08.pdf  [Google Scholar]
  64. Unianu, E. M. (2012) Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education.  Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 900-904. [Google Scholar]
  65. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. (2015). World Education Forum adopts Declaration on the Future of Education [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/world_education_forum_adopts_declaration_on_the_future_of_education/#.VWxwT-uH11K [Google Scholar]
  66. Vislie, L. (2003). From integration to inclusion: Focusing global trends and changes in western European societies. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 18(1), 17-35. [Google Scholar]
  67. Walkenhorst, H. (2008). Explaining change in EU education policy. Journal of European Public Policy, 15(4), 567-587.  [Google Scholar]
  68. What Works Clearinghouse (2014). WWC procedures and standards handbook (Version 3.0). Washington, D.C.: Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/documentsum.aspx?sid=19 [Google Scholar]
  69. Wilczenski, F. (1992).  Use of the ‘Attitudes toward mainstreaming scale with undergraduate student.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the New England Educational Research Organization.  Portsmouth, NH.  ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 332 992.  [Google Scholar]
  70. Zigmond, N., Kloo, A., & Volonino, V. (2009). What, where, and how? Special education in the climate of full inclusion. Exceptionality: A special Education Journal, 17(4), 189- 204. [Google Scholar]