PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 15 Issue 2 (June 2020)

Original articles

Teacher Candidates’ Perspectives about Applied “Basic Science in Primary Education” Course

Nur Akcanca

pp. 7 - 24   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.1

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate teacher candidates’ perspectives about the ‘Basic Science in Primary Education’ course which adopted inquiry-based instruction approach. The participants of this study consisted of 87 teacher candidates (18 males, 69 females) who continued their education in the Department of Primary School Teaching at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University in the 2019-2020 academic year. A form which consisted of 5 questions was used to investigate the perspectives of the primary school teacher candidates about the science course called ‘Basic Science in Primary Education’ and to understand their opinions about the process of designing a course and applying course plans using an inquiry-based instruction. Descriptive codes were used to find out the opinions of the teacher candidates, which also helped analyse the data obtained from the form and interpret the results of the study. The results of the study showed that the teacher candidates shared their awareness and knowledge about teaching science effectively, which changed with this course. The teacher candidates also revealed that they learned the qualifications of teaching science effectively. In addition, despite the awareness that the teacher candidates gained about inquiry-based instruction approach, they shared that they struggled with planning and applying designed course plans. The study suggests that courses aiming to focus on science education ought to have applied practices beyond giving theoretical knowledge.

Keywords: Primary School Teacher Candidates, Inquiry-Based Instruction Approach, Basic Science in Primary Education Course

Critical Discourse Analysis: An Effective Tool for Critical Peace Education Informed by Freirean Dialogue

Gülistan Gürsel-Bilgin

pp. 25 - 40   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.2

Abstract

This study emphasizes that research and practice regarding employing dialogue as transformative pedagogy should be investigated and cultivated by peace educators in ways relevant to various contexts. In this regard, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has a valuable potential to contribute to the development of this relatively new scholarly field by providing effective tools to problematize and analyze social practices. This paper explores critical peace education as it is informed by the dialogical method of emancipatory education, and scrutinizes the promising potential of CDA as an essential tool for on-going research in the field. Towards this goal, this paper includes two subsections. The first section discusses Freirean dialogue and his six preconditions (i.e., love, humility, faith, hope, trust, and critical thinking) as fundamental constructs for critical peace education. The second section explores how the theories, goals, and methods of CDA in current discourse studies connect to constructs in Freirean dialogue and peace education. This section concentrates on four prominent approaches developed by Scollon, Gee, Kress, and Fairclough to underline their key aspects from a Freirian dialogic perspective. The final section discusses the possible affordances and limitations for employing CDA in the study of critical peace education.

Keywords: Critical Peace Education, Freirean Dialogue, Critical Discourse Analysis, Dialogue as Peace Pedagogy, Transformative Pedagogy

A Relational Research on Paternalist Leadership Behaviors Perceived by Teachers and Teachers' Performance

Pınar Mert & Mustafa Özgenel

pp. 41 - 60   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.3

Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between school principals' paternalist leadership behaviors perceived by teachers and teacher performances. In this context, 431 teachers (313 women), (118 men) working in different institutional types were included in the study using the predictive research design. Data were collected through the Paternalist Leadership Behaviors Scale (Dağlı and Ağalday 2017) and Teacher Performance Evaluation Scale (Ozgenel, 2019). Data were having been analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, correlation, and regression. As a result of the research, the moral, authoritarian and exploitative paternalistic leadership behaviors perceived by the teachers do not differ significantly according to the gender of the teachers, whereas male teachers have higher perceptions of benevolent paternalistic leadership. According to the seniority variable, benevolent, moral, authoritarian, exploitative fatherly leadership behaviors and paternalistic leadership total scores do not differ significantly. According to the schools where teachers work, the benevolent and moral paternalistic leadership behaviors and paternalistic leadership total scores do not differ significantly; However, teachers working in secondary schools see school principals more authoritative than teachers working in primary schools. Also, teachers working in high schools consider school principals more exploitative than teachers working in secondary school. As a result of the analysis of performance, female teachers 'performances are higher than male teachers, whereas teachers' performances do not differ significantly according to their seniority and school levels. Paternalist leadership is a type of leadership with high potential and the existence of paternalist leadership behaviors in educational organizations can be explained better by researching new concepts and adding new variables.

Keywords: Leadership, Paternalist Leadership, Performance, Teacher Performance

Investigation of the Perceptions of Turkish Language Teacher Candidates Regarding Multiculturalism

Hulusi Geçgel & Elif Aşcı

pp. 61 - 77   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.4

Abstract

Purpose of this studying is to examine the perception of the multiculturalism of Turkish teachers. For this purpose, descriptive survey design which is one of the quantitiative research methods is used by reforming the philosophical foundations of positivist paradigm. The sample of this research is to create a university in the field of Turkish teachers in Marmara region of Turkey. Similar homogonous samples and measure samples together are used. Datas obtained to Turkish teachers demographic informations collection form and security, multicultural perception scale, by using validity study. This data analyzed with SPSS program. As a result of findings, it has been discovered that the awarenesses of the perception of multiculturalism. Which Turkish teacher candidates who will take on active duty in teaching language which is carrier of concept of culture. Consequently, it has been developed suggestions for administrators who take a part in departments of Turkish Teacher and researchers who will study in the context of multiculturalism.

Keywords: Culture, Turkish Teacher, Multiculturalism, Language, Equality

The Relationship Between Emotional Labor and Organizational Commitment

Kısmet Deliveli & Erkan Kıral

pp. 78 - 103   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.5

Abstract

This research study aiming at revealing the relationship between emotional labor behaviors and organizational commitment perception levels of the instructors working in faculties of education, was designed in the relational screening model. The research was carried out with 365 volunteer instructors selected by proportional cluster sampling method and working in 12 Faculties of Education in ADIM Universities in Turkey. The data of the research was collected by using Organizational Commitment Scale and Emotional Labor Scale. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in data analysis. As a result of the research, it was revealed that the instructors exhibited surface acting behaviors and affective commitment at the highest level. The instructors emotional labor levels were found to be significantly different according to their educational status and whether they did their job willingly or not; while their organizational commitment levels were found to be significantly different according to their title and whether they did their job willingly or not. It was also found that there were positive, low level and moderate, significant relationships between the instructors’ emotional labor levels and their organizational commitment. It was revealed that the instructors’ genuine acting and deep acting behaviors significantly predicted their affective, normative and overall commitment; while their surface acting, deep acting and genuine acting behaviors significantly predicted their continuance commitment. Various suggestions were made such as increasing emotional labor behavior levels of the instructors and appointing the instructors who are eager to do their job willingly.

Keywords: Emotional Labor, Organizational Commitment, Faculties of Education

Informal Effect of The Biographical Film on The Views of Prospective Science Teachers on Nature of Science

Davut Sarıtaş & Mahmut Polat

pp. 104 - 121   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.6

Abstract

In this study, the effects of a documentary and a biographical film, which was watched in an informal environment, on the prospective science teachers’ nature of science (NOS) views were examined. The study conducted according to the mixed research methodology. The data were obtained through the open-ended questionnaire prepared by considering the consensus aspects of the NOS. The participants were shown a documentary-style biographical film about a cross-section of the life of a famous scientist. The findings show that there are changes in the participants' views on some of the consensus aspects of the nature of science. Some of these were in the desired direction, but the retention was weak. Also, some of the changes are in an undesirable direction such as to create a science myth. According to the results, it can be thought that films adapted from the history of science can be used to teach the nature of science. Since films produced for different purposes such as art and entertainment may cause problems in teaching the nature of science, it can be suggested to use such films in a more structured learning environment.

Keywords: Nature of Science, History of Science, Prospective Science Teachers, Biographical Film

Turkish and Syrian Students' Perceptions of Peace through Metaphors

Fatih Mehmet Ciğerci

pp. 122 - 142   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.7

Abstract

This study aimed to examine metaphorical perceptions of 4th-grade primary school students on the concept of "peace". The study was conducted with Turkish and Syrian students who attend primary schools in Sanlıurfa, a city on the west eastern part of Turkey during the fall semester of 2019-2020 academic year. The results of the study showed that Turkish students produced a total of 39 valid metaphors clustered under seven conceptual categories and Syrian students produced a total of 34 valid metaphors clustered under seven conceptual categories. While five categories were common for both groups, two categories were different. The categories of unity and solidarity, tranquility and happiness, conditions for peace, peace as a valuable thing, freedom, possibility/impossibility were common for both groups. Therefore, the findings from Turkish and Syrian students' metaphors were presented together with a comparative approach under these categories. The category of need/necessity for the metaphors by Turkish students and the category of symbols for peace for the metaphors by Syrian students were examined separately.

Keywords: Metaphor, Peace, Turkish and Syrian Primary School Students

The Effect of Coding Education on 5th, 6th and 7th Grade Students' programming Self-Efficacy and Attitudes About Technology

Gözde Okal, Bekir Yıldırım & Serkan Timur

pp. 143 - 165   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.8

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the effect of teaching model developed on coding education on students' self-efficacy and attitude towards technology. The research was conducted on 64 students who were the 5th, 6th and 7th grades of a secondary school during the fall semester of 2018-2019 academic years. The research was designed in accordance with the exploratory sequential design from mixed research designs. The data were collected through the programming self-efficacy scale, the technology attitude scale and semi-structured interview form. The results of the analysis of quantitative data indicated that the model developed for coding education had a positive effect on students' programming self-efficacy and attitudes towards technology. It was found that the students expressed positive opinions about coding education. The students think that coding education facilitates the teaching of many different subjects such as mathematics and science. The students also think that they can do many activities such as code/program writing, designing games and robots, and solving problems with their coding education.

Keywords: Coding, Self-Efficacy, Technology, Attitude, Secondary School

Effect of Activity-Based Visual Arts Education Program on Social Skill Levels of Children in Need of Protection for 7-12 Age Groups

Hande Savaş, Şehnaz Yalçın & Ayşin Satan

pp. 166 - 187   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.9

Abstract

The aim of this research is to improve the social skills of children in need of protection for 7-12 age groups through visual arts education. In the study carried out within the framework of general purpose, the effect of the activity-based visual arts education program on the social skill levels of children in need of protection for 7-12 age groups is examined. Also, it was investigated whether there was a statistically significant difference regarding the social skill total scores of the children according to gender, parents' being alive, participation in any arts / sports activities and dominant hand use variable. For this purpose, 14 children between the ages of 7-12 who are staying in Üsküdar Hasan Tan Nursery and Küçükyalı Children's Houses Site of Turkey Republic Istanbul Governorship constitute the working group. Personal Information Form, Social Skill Assessment Scale (7-12 Age), Visual Arts Education Program were used as data collection tools. According to the findings obtained in the study, it was observed that the study group significantly predicted between the pre-test and post-test scores in favor of the post-test. Within the framework of the personal information form, it was observed that the study group was significantly predicted in favor of the post-test according to parents being alive variable, parental survival variable, participation in any arts / sports activities variable, dominant hand use variable. The findings obtained in the study were discussed in the light of the literature review and some suggestions for future research are presented.

Keywords: Art, Education, Visual Arts Education, Social Skills, Children in Need of Protection

The Effects of Cartoons on the Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies: A Case in Turkish EFL Classes

Zülal Ayar & Nalan Kızıltan

pp. 188 - 204   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.10

Abstract

The impetus behind the design of this current research is to check the influence of cartoons on vocabulary learning strategies of students who have been exposed to three classics from English literature, Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson, Great Expectations by Charles Dickens, and Romeo & Juliet by William Shakespeare. To that end, a vocabulary learning strategy test has been adopted in this quasi-experimental research which completely covers similar word units as in cartoons and hence aims to reveal favoured strategies of students besides clarifying the differences between the male and the female as well as three age groups, 10-19, 20-29 or 30 and elder. 20 randomly assigned participants working on extracts in plain texts without any comic strips were in control group, whereas 47 Turkish EFL students were in the experiment group reading cartoons in colour or black and white format. It was found out that the common vocabulary learning strategies that were used by the experimental group were determination and metacognitive strategies, whereas control group mainly adopted memory, social and metacognitive strategies. In terms of gender, the females practised determination and memory strategies, while the male students opted for social, metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Finally, 10-19 and 30 or elder subjects mostly utilized metacognitive and social strategies; however, the success of 20-29 year-old students centred around determination and memory strategies.

Keywords: Vocabulary Learning Strategies, Cartoons, Gender, Age

Principals’ and Teachers’ Views on Home Visits in Turkey

İhsan Topcu & Soner Doğan

pp. 205 - 221   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.11

Abstract

Schools must cooperate with parents to be effective. “Families are critical to children’s educational success” as Sheldon (2018, vii), declared. The history of cooperation with parents is quite old. One effective way of cooperating with parents is home visits. The impacts of home visits on school-parent cooperation and student outcomes have been revealed in the researches. Since home visits are mostly an out-of-school activity, they are made with the dedication and personal efforts of the teachers. This study aims at revealing the opinions of teachers and principals about home visiting practices in Turkish primary and secondary schools. This is a qualitative research. The study group consists of 12 secondary schools and 10 primary schools in Sivas city center. So, the questionnaires developed by the researchers were distributed to the determined schools. The survey forms were distributed to volunteer teachers and principals. 102 survey forms from teachers and 41 principals were evaluated in accordance with the research purpose. The data obtained from the research were analyzed by content analysis method. The results show that both principals and teachers believe the positive effects of home visits and they find home visits necessary to build an effective school environment. However, they have some reservations of home visit practices.

Keywords: Home Visits, School-Family Cooperation, Family Support, Student Outcome

Teaching Styles Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

Nesrin Hürriyetoğlu & Elif Kılıçoğlu

pp. 222 - 237   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.12

Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale to determine the teaching styles of teachers. The final scale composed of 44 items were applied to the 605 teachers with various branches. Participants are teachers who are working in private and public schools in the province of Hatay. This study is one of the types of quantitative research, scale development research. The data obtained from the teachers was analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis. AMOS software was used for data analysis. In the reliability stage of the study; the internal consistency coefficient was calculated as 0.877. As a result of the research, a scale with 3 factors 14 items was developed for the teaching styles of the teachers whose validity and reliability were provided. The reliability coefficients for the sub-factors are 0.816 for visuality, 0.760 for auditory and 0.646 for kinesthetic. This result shows that the scale is reliable.

Keywords: Teaching Style, Scale Development, Teacher, Teaching

Prediction of Entrepreneurship of Pre-service Teachers based on Cognitive Flexibility and Self-Efficacy Belief

Esen Turan-Özpolat

pp. 239 - 258   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.13

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine whether or not pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy belief and cognitive flexibility predict their entrepreneurship. Study group of this research consists of a total of 374 pre-service teachers, 265 females (71%) and 109 males (29%), who are undergraduate students in various education departments from an university’s faculty of education in Turkey during 2017-2018 school year and participated in this study voluntarily. During the data collection process, Entrepreneurship Scale (ES) for measuring pre-service teachers’ entrepreneurship, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) for measuring cognitive flexibility and General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) for measuring the self-efficacy belief were used. In the research multiple regression analysis, which is a relational screening model, was used. According to the obtained data, cognitive flexibility and self-efficacy belief variables predict entrepreneurship in a meaningful way (R=.708, R2 =.502, p=.00). Also cognitive flexibility and self-efficacy belief variables combined explain approximately 50% of total variance in entrepreneurship of pre-service teachers. Therefore it can be said that supporting entrepreneurial intentions of teacher candidates in education faculties might be realized by situations aimed at increasing their cognitive flexibilities and general self-efficacy belief regarding this subject. Because it is believed that by supporting these aforesaid intentions, teacher candidates might be helped to participate in important educational activities and projects that require entrepreneurship in their professional lives.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Cognitive Flexibility, Self-Efficacy Belief, Pre-Service Teachers

Mathematics Education Values Portrayed by Elementary Student Teachers

Güney Hacıömeroğlu

pp. 259 - 270   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.14

Abstract

This study aims at investigating values in mathematics education portrayed by elementary student teachers. Data were gathered from 401 elementary student teachers at two public universities in Turkey. The results of the study showed that overall student teachers had positive mathematics education values. They recognized that the theoretical nature of mathematics apart from its relations to daily life would be meaningless. However, they held negative mathematics education values regarding conceptual learning of mathematics. They also recognized how important it was to emphasize the affective and cognitive outcomes in mathematics programs. The findings showed that no significant differences between student teachers’ mathematics education values regarding gender and year spent in the program. However, significant differences were found in theory emphasis mathematics teaching favoring female student teachers.

Keywords: Mathematics, Education, Values, Elementary, Student Teacher

An Analysis of the Metaphorical Perceptions About the Piano by Fine Arts High School Students

Ayça Avcı

pp. 271 - 283   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.15

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine, as expressed in metaphors, the attitudes of the students of music department in the Fine Arts High School (FAHS) in the 2019-2020 academic year. The study was carried out with 37 music students in 9th and 12th grades of Mersin Adıyaman Fine Arts High School. In line with the phenomenological research design, a form including the statement “The piano lesson is like… Because...” was used to collect the data for the study. Determining the attitudes of the students of the music department towards the piano is critical in terms of increasing the quality of piano learning and music education. Since metaphors are crucial in determining the student's attitude towards a musical instrument, the metaphors that are used by the student are extremely important. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the metaphorical meanings assigned to the piano by FAHS music students. The data were categorized by using content and frequency analysis techniques, which revealed 34 positive and three negative metaphorical definitions about the piano instrument. The findings indicate that most of the participants have positive metaphoric definitions of the piano.

Keywords: Piano, Fine Arts High School, Metaphor

Personal Traits and Levels of Class Engagement of Pre-Service Teachers

Levent Vural & Menekşe Eskici

pp. 284 - 302   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.16

Abstract

It is thought that determining the relationship between the personal traits of pre-service teachers and their level of class engagement will shed light on the development and implementation of the curricula in the faculties of education. From this point of view, it was aimed in this study to determine the personality traits of pre-service teachers according to the five-factor method of personality and to determine how they affect their level of class engagement. The personality traits and the level of class engagement of the pre-service teachers in the scope of this study are examined by gender, field of teaching, grade, whether or not they willingly study in their departments, and the settlement variables they grow in. Single and relational screening models have been utilized in this research. The study group of the research consists of 372 pre-service teachers studying in the 3rd and 4th grades of Trakya University. In the research, "class engagement scale" and "big five personality traits test" were used as data collection tools. As a result of the analysis, it was found that the pre-service teachers' level of engagement in the class was "medium" and "high". It was determined that pre-service teachers had the most “Agreeableness” trait of personality and the lowest rate as “Neuroticism” trait of personality. Pre-service teachers' level of engagement in class did not differ significantly according to their personality traits.

Keywords: Pre-Service Teachers, Class Engagement, Five-Factor Method of Personality

Teachers’ Evaluation on School Principals’ Supervision

Mehmet Özcan

pp. 303 - 321   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.17

Abstract

This study aims to analyze school principles’ supervision practices according to teachers’ opinions. The study employs phenomenology design out of qualitative research methods. The data of the study were gathered in 2019-2020 academic year from 16 teachers who had been working in state schools for 16 or more years through face to face interviews via a semi-structured interview form. The study attempted to reveal participating teachers’ opinions on school principles’ supervision based on their experiences with regard to teachers’ professional development, motivation, affectivity and objectivity of supervision.  The first finding of the study reveals that school principals’ sharing experience, mutual work, being organized, overcoming insufficiencies and satisfaction contribute to teachers’ professional development.  Second finding of the study states that support, constructive criticism, appreciation and communication increase teachers’ motivation. According to the third finding of the study school principals’ administrator role, supervision knowledge, supervisor role and continuity are factors of effective supervision. Last finding of the study explains that impartiality, equity, sense of mission and meticulousness are needed for objectivity of supervision. Results are discussed and suggestions are provided.

Keywords: Supervision, Lesson, School Principal, Teacher

Foreign Language Teachers’ Views on Pedagogic Research

Ömer Gökhan Ulum

pp. 322 - 334   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.18

Abstract

Pedagogic research may be called insider action research that has several objectives. The research conducted by teachers in educational settings may result in furthering the already existing knowledge on a particular pedagogic approach, increasing the efficiency of learning, or contributing to the development of policy and practice within the related contexts. A question whether teachers should engage in research hereof appears. In order to probe the issue, the current phenomenologic study utilized a scale (N= 118) and a semi-structured interview (N= 20) directed to EFL teachers working at state schools in the disadvantaged areas in Turkey. The findings suggested that having no available time, resources, and institutional support, but having high level of stress or related psychological barriers as a result of working at disadvantaged areas, teachers lacked both psychological and physical accessibility to research. Further, the study put forward precious advice to authorities in promoting ways to develop the conditions of EFL teachers working in disadvantaged areas.

Keywords: Scientific Research, Action Research, Foreign Language, English as a Foreign Language

The Effect of Accepting Diversity Psychoeducation Program on Teasing of Children

Hanife Akgül

pp. 335 - 350   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.19

Abstract

Teasing is a type of bullying which is seen in children at very early ages and considered as devastating for the victim. The skill of coping with this behavior is considered as important in terms of learning peer relations of children and being adapted to in-group relations. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of Accepting Diversity Psychoeducation Program on teasing.The study was conducted with a pretest, posttest, and follow-up test model with experimental and control groups. The study was carried out with primary school students in grades 1-5 in Kayseri, in accordance with the project no: 118B525 in TUBITAK 4004 program. The data were collected using “Child-Adolescent Teasing Scale”. While experimental group was given instruction through Accepting Diversity Psychosocial Education Program, control group was not given instruction. Follow-up data were collected one month after posttest. Mann Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze the data.The results of the study revealed that there was a significant difference (p <.05) between the posttest scores of the experimental and control groups. The applied program decreased discomfort felt by children in experimental group. The effects diminished but continued in following month.

Keywords: Teasing, Child, Psychoeducation Program, Diversity

An Analysis of the Persuasion Strategies Used by Turkish Language Teachers to Persuade Their Students

Ahmet Akkaya

pp. 351 - 370   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.20

Abstract

“Persuasion” has been a key concept for human communication throughout history. Humans constantly try to persuade or are persuaded since they are in a continuous state of communication and interaction. The aim of this study is to determine the persuasion strategies related to understanding and explaining skills used by the teachers of Turkish language in creating learning environments. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview form was created with the Google Docs and 46 Turkish teachers volunteered to answer the questions. Examination of the Turkish language teachers’ opinions revealed that they developed positive and negative persuasion strategies. The positive persuasion strategies by frequency are rewarding, experience transfer, arousing interest, establishing condition-and-effect relationships, giving responsibility, conversing, trusting, motivating, caring, empathizing, performing needs assessment, building cause-and-effect relationships, establishing positive style, creating environment, developing a culture of reconciliation, giving feedback, establishing rules, building aim-and-effect relationships, body language, creating consciousness, using the question-answer method, listening, providing feedback, being respectful, presenting alternative sources, making a difference, getting to know the student, going from the known towards the unknown, being student-oriented, guidance, going from simple to complex, working together, drawing attention, creating awareness, cooperative learning, perseverance, the separation into small groups, being patient, and association with  real life. The negative persuasion strategies by frequency are punishment, competition, verbal warning, using grading as a threat, admonition, singling students out, doing nothing, comparison, negative style, conscientious pressure and necessity. Preservice or in-service teachers may be given training on persuasion strategies so that they can become aware of these strategies and apply them more effectively.

Keywords: Persuasion, Persuasion Strategies, Turkish Language Teacher, Student

Activities Conducted in Primary School through the Eyes of Fourth Graders

Alper Yorulmaz, Zeynep Kılıç, Fatma Özge Ünsal & Halil Çokçalışkan

pp. 371 - 385   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.21

Abstract

It can be said that activities form the basis for active learning, but teachers determine which activity is effective for the development of students. One of the criteria in this determination is the student, which is the basic input of education. Therefore, the aim of the study is to determine the opinions of primary school students about the activities based on their observations. To this end, variables such as the scope, type, location and frequency of the activities, the feelings and thoughts of the children about these activities were determined. The study employed the case study design, one of the qualitative research designs. The study group was comprised of 20 fourth grade students attending primary education in the city of Muğla in the spring term of the 2017-2018 school year. The data were collected by using a semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers. In order for the children to remember the activity types, the activities were introduced to the children one by one before initiating the data collection process. In order to eliminate peer effect in the data collection process, the interviews were individually conducted with each participant and each one lasted 5-10 minutes. In the analysis, content analysis was used. As a result, it was found that the activities most liked by the children are game-based and writing-based activities. Moreover, the students stated that activities are generally conducted inside the class and that they would like to conduct more activities in out-of-class environments.

Keywords: Activity, Primary School, Student, 4th Grade

International Scholars’ Views on the Language Reinforcement Program

Yusuf Avcı, Gamze Çelik & Ayşe Dağ Pestil

pp. 386 - 405   |  DOI: 10.29329/epasr.2020.251.22

Abstract

Language plays a critical role in an individual’s adapting to a community and developing a sense of friendship and belonging. In its absence, Humans suffer from a lack of trust in each other since they cannot speak in the same language. If they fail to communicate, this incapability leads to problems. Additionally, individual and common social communication can beperformed by language education, as well and language education is directly associated with the cultural transmission. Kyrgyzstan Turkey Manas University functions as an educational bridge between Turkey and Kyrgyzstan and offers education in Turkish (Turkey Turkish). Moreover, there are Turkey Turkish departments at Humanitarian Social Sciences University and Yusuf Balasagun Kyrgyz National University in Kyrgyzstan. The ongoing Language Reinforcement Project annually offers training to the students of these departments of the contracted organizations for six months. According to the scholars’ views how the Kyrgyz students who had the chance to come to Turkey via the Language Reinforcement Projectwere affected by the internship in general and how the components of this project will contribute to Turkish and Kyrgyz peopleare the research questions of the study.The sample of the research consists of ten volunteer scholars working at Yusuf Balasagun Kyrgyz National University in Kyrgyzstan in the Fall Term of the 2018-2019 Academic Year. Six female and four male scholars participated in the research. This study is a qualitative research study and the data collection tool of the study is the interview. According to the results of the study, the scholars expressed their satisfaction with the students’ internship or training in Turkey as well as the other advantages.

Keywords: Language Reinforcement Program, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Sociolinguistic, Language and Culture, Cultural Transmission