PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 2017, Vol. 12(2) 93-108

The Validity of Educational Disadvantage Policy Indicators

Geert Driessen

pp. 93 - 108   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1710-12-0001

Published online: December 20, 2017  |   Number of Views: 94  |  Number of Download: 167


Abstract

Many countries have implemented policies to prevent or combat educational disadvantage associated with socioeconomic factors in the students’ home environment. Under such policies, educational institutions generally receive extra support from the central or local government. The support is normally based on indicators available in the home environment of the children, mostly family-structural characteristics. In the Netherlands, the core of educational disadvantage policy is the so-called weighted student funding scheme, which awards schools with disadvantaged students additional financial resources. When this scheme was developed in 1984, three indicators of disadvantage were selected, namely: parental education, occupation, and ethnicity. Analyses conducted at the time established a predictive validity estimate of 0.50, amounting to 25 percent of explained variance. Nowadays, some thirty years later, the funding scheme is based on only one indicator, namely parental education. Analyses performed on data collected in 2014 show a validity estimate of 0.20, thus accounting for no more than four percent of variance. This dramatic decrease of the indicator’s predictive validity shows that the empirical basis of the Dutch weighted student funding scheme has become highly problematic. It is suggested that instead of employing family characteristics as educational disadvantage indicators, the actual performance of students based on test achievement and teacher observations may offer a more valid alternative.

Keywords: Educational Disadvantage Policy, Weighted Student Funding, Predictive Validity, The Netherlands


How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Driessen, G. (2017). The Validity of Educational Disadvantage Policy Indicators. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 12(2), 93-108.

Harvard
Driessen, G. (2017). The Validity of Educational Disadvantage Policy Indicators. Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research, 12(2), pp. 93-108.

Chicago 16th edition
Driessen, Geert (2017). "The Validity of Educational Disadvantage Policy Indicators". Educational Policy Analysis and Strategic Research 12 (2):93-108.

References

Algemene Rekenkamer (2001). Bestrijding onderwijsachterstanden. Den Haag: Algemene Rekenkamer.

Algemene Rekenkamer (2015). Resultaten verantwoordingsonderzoek 2014 Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap. Den Haag: Algemene Rekenkamer.

Ballas, D., Lupton, R., Kavroudakis, D., Hennig, B., Yiagopoulou, V., Dale, R., & Dorlinget, D. (2012). Mind the gap. Education inequality across EU regions. Brussels: European Commission.

Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J.-C. (1977). Reproduction in education, society, culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

CFI (2006). Nieuwe gewichtenregeling in het basisonderwijs. Zoetermeer: CFI.

Claassen, A., & Mulder, L. (2011). Een afgewogen weging? De effecten van de gewijzigde gewichtenregeling in het basisonderwijs. Nijmegen: ITS.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

Colpin, M., Gysen, S., Jaspaert, K., Heymans, R., Van den Branden, K., & Verhelst, M. (2006). Studie naar de wenselijkheid en haalbaarheid van de invoering van centrale taaltoetsen in Vlaanderen in functie van gelijke onderwijskansen. Leuven: Katholieke Universiteit.

Davis-Kean, P., & Jager, J. (2014). Trajectories of achievement within race/ethnicity: ‘Catching up’ in achievement across time. The Journal of Educational Research, 107(3), 197-208.

Demeuse, M., Frandji, D., Greger, D., & Rochex, J.-Y. (Eds.) (2012). Education policies and inequalities in Europe. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

De Vijlder, F., Verschoor, M., Rozema, M., Van Velden, J., & Gansewinkel, H. van (2012). Interne middelenverdeling in het primair onderwijs. Arnhem/Nijmegen: HAN Press.

Doesborgh, J. (1984). De secundaire analyse. Nijmegen: ITS.

Driessen, G., & Merry, M. (2014). Trends in educational disadvantage in Dutch primary school. Educational Review, 66(3), 276-292

Driessen, G., Elshof, D., Mulder, L., & Roeleveld, J. (2015). Cohortonderzoek COOL5-18. Technisch rapport basisonderwijs, derde meting 2013/14. Nijmegen: ITS/ Amsterdam: Kohnstamm Instituut.

Feron, E., Schils, T., & Ter Weel, B. (2015). Does the teacher beat the test? The additional value of teacher assessment in predicting student ability. Den Haag: CPB.

Fettelaar, D., & Smeets, E. (2013). Mogelijke indicatoren van schoolgewichten. Onderzoek naar de voorspellende waarde. Nijmegen: ITS.

Goodman, R., & Burton, D. (2012). What is the nature of the achievement gap, why does it persist and are government goals sufficient to create social justice in the education system? Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 40(5), 500-514.

Goodman, M., Sands, A., & Coley, R. (2015). America’s skills challenge: Millennials and the future. Princeton, NJ: ETS.

Gorard, S. (2012). Who is eligible for free school meals? Characterising free school meals as a measure of disadvantage in England. British Educational Research Journal, 38(6), 1003-1017.

Herweijer, L. (2009). Making up the gap. Migrant education in the Netherlands. Den Haag: SCP.

Inspectie van het Onderwijs (2016). De staat van het onderwijs. Onderwijsverslag 2014/2015. Utrecht: Inspectie van het Onderwijs.

Jepma, IJ., & Beekhoven, S. (2013). Naar een nieuw bekostigingsarrangement voor het onderwijsachterstandenbeleid. Utrecht: Sardes.

Huang, H., & Liang, G. (2016). Parental cultural capital and student school performance in mathematics and science across nations. The Journal of Educational Research, 109(3), 286-295.

Karsten, S. (2006). Policies for disadvantaged children under scrutiny: The Dutch policy compared with policies in France, England, Flanders and the USA. Comparative Education, 42(2), 261-281.

Kounali, D., Robinson, T., Goldstein, H., & Lauder, H. (2008). The probity of free school meals as a proxy measure for disadvantage. Bristol: Bristol University.

Kuhry, B., & Kam, F. de (red.) (2012). Waar voor ons belastinggeld? Prijs en kwaliteit van publieke diensten. Den Haag: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.

Ladd, H., & Fiske, E. (2009). Weighted student funding for primary schools: An analyses of the Dutch experience. Durham. NC: Duke University.

Leuven, E., Lindahl, M., Oosterbeek, H., & Webbink, D. (2003). The effect of extra funding for disadvantaged students on achievement. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Machin, S., & McNally, S. (2012). The evaluation of English education policies. National Institute Economic Review, 219(1), 15-25.

Meijnen, W. (2003). Onderwijsachterstanden: Een historische schets. In W. Meijnen (Ed.). Onderwijsachterstanden in basisscholen (pp. 9-29). Antwerpen/Apeldoorn: Garant.

Ministerie van Financiën (2017). Onderwijsachterstandenbeleid, een duwtje in de rug? Interdepartementaal beleidsonderzoek naar het onderwijsachterstandenbeleid. Den Haag: Ministerie van Financiën.

Mulder, L. (1996). Meer voorrang, minder achterstand? Het Onderwijsvoorrangsbeleid getoetst. Nijmegen: ITS.

OECD (2012). Equity and quality in education. Supporting disadvantaged students and schools. Paris: OECD.

OECD (2016). Netherlands 2016: Foundations for the future. Paris: OECD.

Onderwijsraad (2001). Wat ’t zwaarst weegt. Een nieuwe aanpak voor het Onderwijsachterstandenbeleid. Advies. Den Haag: Onderwijsraad.

Onderwijsraad (2002). Over leerlinggewichten en schoolgewichten. Advies. Den Haag: Onderwijsraad.

Ross, A. (2009). Educational policies that address social inequality. Brussels: European Commission.

Stanovich, K. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(4), 360-407.

StatLine (2016). Leerlingen in (speciaal) basisonderwijs; achterstand, herkomst, woonregio. Retrieved from the Web June 17, 2016. http://statline.cbs.nl/Statweb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=83295NED&D1=1-5&D2=a&D3=0-2&D4=0&D5=2&HDR=G4

StatLine (2017). Bevolking; generatie, geslacht, leeftijd en herkomstgroepering, 1 januari 2015. Retrieved from the Web July 6, 2017. http://statline.cbs.nl/Statweb/publication/?DM=SLNL&PA=37296ned&D1=0-51&D2=0,10,20,30,40,50,(l-1)-l&VW=T

Stevens, P., & Dworkin, A. (Eds.) (2014). The Palgrave handbook of race and ethnic inequalities in education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Verhoeven, L., & Vermeer, A, (2005). Het ongelijk van Netelenbos? Toetsing van kleuters en hun prestaties op de Cito Eindtoets Basisonderwijs. Toegepaste Taalwetenschap in Artikelen, 74, 123-133.

Vignoles, A., Levacic, R., Walker, J., Machin, S., & Reynolds, D. (2000). The relationship between resource allocation and pupil attainment: A review. London: Centre for the Economics of Education.

Zetterberg, H. (1963). On theory and verification in sociology. Totowa, NJ: The Bedminster Press.