PEN Academic Publishing   |  ISSN: 1949-4270   |  e-ISSN: 1949-4289

Volume 12 Issue 2 (December 2017)

The Use of Humor by Primary School Administrators and Its Organizational Effect on Schools

Ahmet Sahin

pp. 6 - 23   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1706-08-0001


The purpose of this study is to determine the aim of primary school administrators’ use of humor and the organizational effects of their use of humor according to the opinions of the school administrators and teachers. The study was modelled as a multiple holistic case study. The study group consists of 9 administrators and 12 teachers working in the primary schools in the province of Antalya in the year of 2015. For data collection, the researcher developed and used a semi-structured data collection form. The data obtained were subjected to both descriptive analysis and content analysis. As a result, both the administrators and the teachers reported that the constructive use of humor of the primary school administrators was superior to the destructive ones. The results also revealed that the positive effects of the humor used by administrators were higher than the negative effects on school and subordinates. 

Keywords: Humor, use of humor, organizational effects of humor, primary schools, school administrators.

Solution Proposals of Prospective Teachers On the Problems of Pre-School Education

Mehmet Kaan Demir, Serdar Arcagok, Cavuş Sahin & Haydar Durukan

pp. 24 - 42   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1710-03-0001.R1


In this research, the proposals of prospective teachers in pre-school training about the problems of pre-school education which are defined by the literature analysis have been put forward. 700 solution proposals are gathered from 140 prospective teachers who are included in the research by providing 5 solution proposals each. When analyzing the gathered proposals, 140 prospective teachers concluded on highly important 5 solution proposals out of 40 solution proposals which they have already specified. These are in order ‘arranging the pre-school buildings and classrooms conditions according to the characteristics of childrens’ development’, ‘reducing the classroom size’, ‘explaining the importance of pre-school education to the parents and improving the cooperation and communication with them’, ‘enlarging the classroom space’, ‘mainstreaming inclusive education’. These prospective teachers concluded on the least important 5 solution proposals as follow: ‘electing the pre-school prospective teachers by an interview’, ‘employement of doctors and nurses in the pre-school education institutions’, ‘Emphasis more on skills like music and painting in the pre-school education process of prospective teachers’, ‘provision of experiential and informational support by the retired pre-school teachers’, ‘shortening the pre-school lesson hours’. 

Keywords: Pre-school Education, Compulsory Basic Education, problem, prospective teacher, solution proposal

Identifying Psychometric Properties of the Social-Emotional Learning Skills Scale

Hanife Esen-Aygun & Cigdem Sahin-Taskin

pp. 43 - 61   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1703-28-0001


This study aims to develop a comprehensive scale of social-emotional learning. After constructing a wide range of item pool and expertise evaluation, validity and reliability studies were carried out through using the data-set of 439 primary school students at 3rd and 4th grade levels. Explarotary and confirmatory factor analysis results revealed a valid and reliable 27-item, seven-factor model including the following factors: Relationship among Friends, Perception of Friendship, Persistence, Success, Self-Management, Impulse Control and Self-Confidence. Cronbach Alpha coefficient is calculated as .856 for the whole scale.

Keywords: Social-emotional learning skills, scale development, psychometric properties, validity, reliability

Effectiveness of Learning Strategies Taught To Teacher Candidates

Gizem Engin, Ahmet Dikbayır & Salih Zeki Genç

pp. 62 - 80   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1703-17-0001.R1


The research was carried out with 41 people educated in Ege University, Faculty of Education, Social Studies Teacher Training Department during the fall semester of 2015 - 2016 academic year. Quasi-experimental design was used in the study. Within the scope of the research, prospective teachers were taught learning strategies lasting for ten weeks. The effectiveness of the training was determined through interview forms, Learning Strategies Training Assessment Questionnaire prepared by the researchers, and also by Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Büyüköztürk, Akgün, Demirel and Özkahveci, 2004). As a result of the research, a significant increase is observed in the level of use of rehearsal, metacognitive, elaboration, regulation, peer learning strategies of teacher candidates. There have been seen no differences in the dimensions of time management, critical thinking, help seeking as well as effort management. 

Keywords: Learning strategies, Memory, Permanent learning, Motivation, Awareness


Mustafa Volkan Coskun, Perihan Gulce Ozkaya & Zeynep Ezgi Uysal

pp. 81 - 92   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1707-26-0002


The purpose of the current study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the situational story of Sait Faik Abasıyanık entitled as “Alemdağ’da Var Bir Yılan” and the incidental story of Refik Halid Karay entitled as “Boz Eşek” in terms of syntax on the basis of their deep structures. The current study employed case study, one of the qualitative research methods. Within the context of the study, the situational story of Sait Faik Abasıyanık called “Alemdağ’da Var Bir Yılan” was analyzed in comparison with the incidental story of Refik Halid Karay called “Boz Eşek” in terms of syntax on the basis of their deep structures. Therefore, document analysis technique was considered to be suitable for data collection. The sentences in the texts used in the current study were analyzed in terms of syntax and the meaningful units in these sentences were found and named according to their meanings. These meaningful units were named by using the names of the terms explained in grammar books. The results were qualitatively and quantitatively compared on the basis of the term and the meaning.     

Keywords: Syntax, deep structure, surface structure, sentence analysis

The Validity of Educational Disadvantage Policy Indicators

Geert Driessen

pp. 93 - 108   |  Manu. Number: MANU-1710-12-0001


Many countries have implemented policies to prevent or combat educational disadvantage associated with socioeconomic factors in the students’ home environment. Under such policies, educational institutions generally receive extra support from the central or local government. The support is normally based on indicators available in the home environment of the children, mostly family-structural characteristics. In the Netherlands, the core of educational disadvantage policy is the so-called weighted student funding scheme, which awards schools with disadvantaged students additional financial resources. When this scheme was developed in 1984, three indicators of disadvantage were selected, namely: parental education, occupation, and ethnicity. Analyses conducted at the time established a predictive validity estimate of 0.50, amounting to 25 percent of explained variance. Nowadays, some thirty years later, the funding scheme is based on only one indicator, namely parental education. Analyses performed on data collected in 2014 show a validity estimate of 0.20, thus accounting for no more than four percent of variance. This dramatic decrease of the indicator’s predictive validity shows that the empirical basis of the Dutch weighted student funding scheme has become highly problematic. It is suggested that instead of employing family characteristics as educational disadvantage indicators, the actual performance of students based on test achievement and teacher observations may offer a more valid alternative.

Keywords: Educational Disadvantage Policy, Weighted Student Funding, Predictive Validity, The Netherlands